What Are Endocannabinoids: A Profile Of Known Endocannabinoids

What Are Endocannabinoids: A Profile Of Known Endocannabinoids

What Are Endocannabinoids Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Several human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a vita

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What Are Endocannabinoids

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Several human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a vital role in memory, mood, brain reward systems. They also impact drug addiction, and metabolic processes, like lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and power balance.

With scientific evidence suggesting they play a roll in inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and energy and fat metabolism, inhibition of endocannabinoids may be a tool in for better health. Furthermore, regulation of the endocannabinoid system may be a cure for more chronic neurologic and immune conditions. Research in animal models suggests potential cancer fighting benefits as well.

Wondering about specific functions and the names of the endocannabinoids? Let’s look at each of them individually.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Breaking Each One Down

Here is a run down about each endocannabinoid and what we know about them.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Anandamide

Anandamide is a neurotransmitter produced in the brain. It binds to THC receptors. Anandamide is synthesized in areas of the brain governing memory, movement control, higher thought processes and motivation. Additionally, it affectspain, fertility, and appetite. It also helps prevent cancer cell proliferation.

By increasing new nerve cell formation, anandamide exhibits both antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties. Anandamide, like all neurotransmitters, is fragile and breaks down quickly in the body. That is the reason we’re not wandering around blissed out all the time. You can get a similar effect with chocolate, exercise and truffles, by the way.

What Are Endocannabinoids: N-Arachidonoyl dopamine

NADA plays a crucial role in inflammation and nociception in the main and peripheral nervous system. The TRPV1 receptor, which NADA stimulates, is a proven endogenous transducer of noxious heat. Furthermore, it’s been demonstrated that NADA exerts antioxidative and protective properties in microglial cell cultures, cortical neurons, and organotypical hippocampal slice cultures. NADA occurs in minute levels in the brain and is seemingly not involved in activation of the classical pathways.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Arachidonoyl serotonin

Arachidonoyl serotonin (N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, AA-5-HT) is an endogenous lipid signaling molecule. It inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and possesses analgesic properties. Furthermore, it blocks the TRPV1 receptor. This’s crucial because TRPV1 is associated with the transmission and modulation of pain along with the integration of diverse painful stimuli.

Arachidonoyl serotonin exists in the ileum and jejunum of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, it modulates glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP 1) secretion. It also plays a role in sleep.

What Are Endocannabinoids: 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2 AG)

This endocannabinoid bonds with the CB1 receptor. It’s a chemical compound known as an ester. 2 AG forms from the omega 6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and glycerol. It’s present at relatively high levels in the main nervous system. This ester exists in human and cow milk.

It’s naturally present in the brain and a number of other organs. In fact, 2 arachidonoylglycerol can feasibly diffuse easily through membranes to arrive at the sites of activity. Science comes to this conclusion because they have not identified an active transport system.

It’s a full agonist to CB1, which is better than Anandamide. 2 arachidonoylglycerol is thought to be a messenger molecule that regulates the transmission of signals across synapses in the human brain.

Additionally, 2 arachidonoylglycerol is involved as a mediator of immune responses and inflammatory reactions. There’s proof that it suppresses the elevation of the expression of a key enzyme in pro inflammatory stimuli response.

Current research has also demonstrated it’s a job in the regulation of the duplication and spread of certain cancer cells.

What Are Endocannabinoids: 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether

2-AGE binds with both CB1 and  CB2 receptors and partially bonds with TRPV1 . After binding to CB2 receptors, it inhibits adenylate cyclase (a regulatory enzyme) and stimulates ERK MAPK (to do with cellular communication).

Things get pretty technical from here so please follow the links in this section to dive deeply into this endocannabinoid.

What Are Endocannabinoids: N-Arachidonylglycine

This endocannabinoid is anandamide-like but does not bond to CB1 receptors  It does inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which is a protein coding gene responsible for the hydrolysis of a number of primary and secondary fatty acid amides.  It possesses anti-inflammatory and pain reduction abilities.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Docosatetraenoylethanolamide

Docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA) is an endogenous ethanolamide structurally similar to anandamide. The difference is one contains a docosatetraenoic acid in place of an arachidonic acid. DEA binds to the CB receptor with similar potency and efficacy as AEA, however it’s full role is still a mystery.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Lysophosphatidylinositol

LPI regulates diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes and may stop the cancer cell proliferation.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Oleamide

Oleamide is an amide of the fatty acid oleic acid that fully bonds to the CB1 receptors. Because an amide is primarily a structural protein, it is prevelant in nature. Oleamide specifically builds up in the cerebrospinal fluid during sleep deprivation. Because of this, it holds promise treating mood and sleep disorders. It is currently hypothesized that oleamide interacts with multiple neurotransmitter systems.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Palmitoylethanolamide

This fatty-acide amide affects neuropathic pain. This is significant because it may explain how cannabis assists with this condition.

What Are Endocannabinoids: RVD-Hpα

RVD-Hpa is a haemoglobin-derived peptide. This peptide inhibits bombesin-induced central activation of adrenomedullary outflow (tested on rats). Therefore, it affects the adrenal glands which reside in the kidneys.  Interestingly, RVD-Hpa is the second major source of negative feedback signals that inhibit eating. Additionally, bombesin is a tumor marker for certain types of cancer.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Stearoylethanolamide

Also known as SEA, this endocannabinoid binds to and is transported by previously unknown components of the ECS. Unfortunately, very little research exists.

What Are Endocannabinoids: Virodhamine

Virodhamine is an endocannabinoid that acts as an antagonist at the CB1 receptor and a full agonist at the CB2 receptor. This means that it inhibits the CB1 receptor and stimulates the CB2. There is only limited research available into this substance as well.