The cannabis plant consists of a wide variety of compounds and chemicals. About 140 of these belong to a big class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes. The words terpene and terpenoid are frequently used interchangeably, though these terms do have different meanings. The primary difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (meaning the only elements present are hydrogen and carbon); whereas, terpenoids have been denatured by oxidation (curing and drying the flowers) or perhaps chemically modified.
Terpenes are synthesized inside glandular trichomes of cannabis, and production is enhanced with light exposure. Terpenes also play a tremendously vital role by providing the plant with natural protection from bacteria and other environmental stresses, insects and fungus.
The FDA generally recognizes terpenes as safe.
Effects Of Terpenes: Combined Effects
Terpenes communicate with CBD and THC, the primary active compounds in marijuana. But research is showing that terpenes have effects of their own.
On their own, terpenes act on neurotransmitters and receptors; they combine with or dissolve in fats or lipids. They also act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (similar to antidepressants), enhance norepinephrine activity (similar to tricyclic antidepressants), increase dopamine activity and augment GABA (the downer neurotransmitter that counters glutamate, the upper).
The wide ranging effects of terpenes include reducing inflammation, relieving pain, and aiding with sleep.
Recreational and medical users alike can take pleasure in the diverse effects of terpenes. In the future, terpenes could become a crucial factor in matching users with their ideal strain.
Since there are more than 200 different terpenes in cannabis alone, they’re still poorly understood and a lot about them remain to be uncovered.
Effects Of Terpenes: Common Terpenes
Researchers have studied several of the abundant and common most terpenes found in cannabis.
Effects Of Terpenes: Myrcene
Myrcene is probably the most common terpene in marijuana strains, however it’s not found in hemp textiles. It’s also present in large quantities in hops. Its scent is very much like cloves (girofle). Myrcene is a powerful analgesic, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory. It prevents the action of cytochrome, other pro mutagenic carcinogens, and aflatoxin B. Additionally, it features a relaxing, soothing, anti spasmodic and sedative effect. Acting in synergy with THC, myrcene increases its psychoactive potential.
Effects Of Terpenes: Limonene
Limonene is usually the second, fourth or third terpene found in cannabis resin. This family of terpenes produces the typical smell we all recognise as citrus. Limonene has anti fungal and anti bacterial properties.
Effects Of Terpenes: Citrics
It prevents the detioration of the RAS gene, one of the factors which contribute to the development of tumors. Additionally, it protects against Aspergillus and carcinogens present in smoke. Limonene easily and quickly penetrates the blood brain barrier, which increases systolic pressure. During testing on the consequences of limonene, participants experienced a rise in attention, mental focus, well being as well as sex drive. Limonene is used often in spray form, to deal with anxiety and depression. Additionally, it has the effect of lowering the unpleasantness of gastric acid and also stimulates the immune system. Plants use limonenes to ward off predators; for instance, it repels flies effectively.
Effects Of Terpenes: Caryophyllene
Caryophyllene is in numerous spices and create the spicy flavour. It’s a local anti inflammatory and analgesic, and 1 of the active ingredients of the clove (Girofl). It’s an effective remedy to relieve toothache. Additionally, it has anti fungal properties. This terpene has the particularity of selectively activate the cannabinoid two receptors (CB2), while it’s not a cannabinoid. This discovery is extremely exciting.
Effects Of Terpenes: Pinene
Pinene is accountable for the usual smell associated with pine and fir trees. It’s present also in most plants like Sage or perhaps Rosemary. Pinene is used in medicine as an expectorant, bronchodilator, anti inflammatory and local antiseptic. Additionally, it crosses the hemato encaphalic barrier quickly, where it acts as an inhibitor of acetylcolynesterasics, preventing the destruction of molecules to blame for the transmission of information that results in memory improvement. It’s mostly as a result of the presence of pinenes that Rosemary and Sage have been deemed to be beneficial plants during a huge number of years of conventional medicine.
This terpene, in part, counteract the effects of THC, which leads to a reduction in the acetylcholine levels. The conclusion would be that the memory fails much more with pure THC than with THC mixed with pinene. Skunky smelling strains are, for instance, recognized for the high levels of theirs of pinenes. Because this produces a bronco dilator effect, the smoke of plants full of pinene which can make people cough more. Pinene also improves concentration, personal energy and satisfaction.
Effects Of Terpenes: Terpineol
Terpineol smells of lilac, lime blossoms and crabapple blossoms. During tests on mice, their mobility was reduced to 45% compared with those who weren’t exposed. This points out the sedative effect of some marijuana strains. Terpineol is usually found in strains which have a lot of pinenes, the aromas of which can hide the smell of terpineol.
Effects Of Terpenes: Borneol
Borneol has a medicinal smell like camphor and mint. It’s used in Chinese medicine against fatigue, stress and recovery.
Effects Of Terpenes: Linalool
Linalool has a floral smell. Humans are particularly perceptive to this terpene, from one PPM in air. Linalool is now employed in the treatment of different cancers. Additionally, it carries an effective calming action, anti anxiety, and also produces a sedative effect. In tests on mice it was found that their activity decreased by 75%. Linalool is thus partly responsible for the sedative effects of certain marijuana strains. Additionally, it has anti-epileptic and analgesic properties.
Effects Of Terpenes: Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol (also called 1,8 cineol) is most closely associated with Eucalyptus. It’s the characteristic minty smell of this tree and it is also present in marijuana. Its effects relieve pain and also improve inner balance and concentration. Plants containing eucalyptol enhance concentration and meditation.
Effects Of Terpenes: Nerolidol
Nerolidol, with fresh bark aromas and woody, can be found in ginger, citronella and niaouli. It’s anti fungal, anti malarial and anti leishmaniasis. Additionally, it produces a sedative effect.
Effects Of Terpenes: Other Terpenes
Other terpenes that are available in marijuana resin are, bisabolene, aromadendrene, fenchol, elemene, D3-carene, farnesene, bergamotene, pulegone, humulene, phytol, phellandrene, to name a few.